Photo of Xiao Liu

Xiao Liu

Associate Professor


  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Institute for Computational and Data Sciences

431 Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Building


Personal or Departmental Website

Research Areas:






Journal Articles

  • Yifan *Yang, David A Leopold, Jeff H Duyn and Xiao Liu, 2024, "Hippocampal replay sequence governed by spontaneous brain-wide dynamics", PNAS Nexus
  • Feng *Han, Xufu Liu, Richard Mailman, Xuemei Huang and Xiao Liu, 2023, "Resting-state global brain activity affects early ß-amyloid accumulation in default mode network", Nature Commuinications
  • Xiao Liu, 2023, "Simultaneous EEG and functional MRI data during rest and sleep from humans", Data in Brief
  • Feng *Han, Yameng *Gu, Gregory L *Brown, Xiang Zhang and Xiao Liu, 2020, "Neuroimaging contrast across the cortical hierarchy is the feature maximally linked to behavior and demographics", NeuroImage
  • Feng *Han, Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, 2019, "A Neurophysiological Event of Arousal Modulation May Underlie fMRI-EEG Correlations", Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, pp. 823
  • Thomas M. Moehlman, Jacco A. de Zwart, Miranda G. Chappel-Farley, Xiao Liu, Irene B. McClain, Catie Chang, Hendrik Mandelkow, Pinar S. Özbay, Nicholas L. Johnson, Rebecca E. Bieber, Katharine A. Fernandez, Kelly A. King, Christopher K. Zalewski, Carmen C. Brewer, Peter van Gelderen, Jeff H. Duyn and Dante Picchioni, 2019, "All-night functional magnetic resonance imaging sleep studies", Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 316, pp. 83 - 98
  • Xiao Liu, Nanyin Zhang, Catie Chang and Jeff H. Duyn, 2018, "Co-activation patterns in resting-state fMRI signals", NeuroImage, 180, pp. 485 - 494
  • Xiao Liu, Jacco A. De Zwart, Scholvinck, Marieke L., Catie Chang, Frank Q. Ye, David A. Leopold and Jeff H. Duyn, 2018, "Subcortical evidence for a contribution of arousal to fMRI studies of brain activity", Nature Communications
  • C Chang, D A Leopold, M L Scholvinck, H Mandelkow, D Picchioni, Xiao Liu, F Q Ye, J N Turchi and J H Duyn, 2016, "Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113, (16), pp. 4518–4523
  • Xiao Liu, T Yanagawa, D A Leopold, C Chang, H Ishida, N Fujii and J H Duyn, 2015, "Arousal transitions in sleep, wakefulness, and anesthesia are characterized by an orderly sequence of cortical events", NeuroImage, 116, pp. 222--231
  • Xiao Liu, T Yanagawa, D A Leopold, N Fujii and J H Duyn, 2014, "Robust Long-Range Coordination of Spontaneous Neural Activity in Waking, Sleep and Anesthesia", Cerebral cortex
  • Xiao Liu, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang and Wei Chen, 2013, "The Change of Functional Connectivity Specificity in Rats Under Various Anesthesia Levels and its Neural Origin", Brain Topography, 26, (3), pp. 363--377
  • Xiao Liu, C Chang and J H Duyn, 2013, "Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns", Front Syst Neurosci, 7, pp. 101
  • Catie Chang, Zhongming Liu, Michael C. Chen, Xiao Liu and Jeff H. Duyn, 2013, "EEG correlates of time-varying BOLD functional connectivity", NeuroImage, 72, pp. 227--236
  • Xiao Liu and J H Duyn, 2013, "Time-Varying Functional Network Information Extracted from Brief Instances of Spontaneous Brain Activity", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, (11), pp. 4392--4397
  • Xiao Liu, X H Zhu, P Qiu and W Chen, 2012, "A correlation-matrix-based hierarchical clustering method for functional connectivity analysis", Journal of neuroscience methods, 211, (1), pp. 94--102
  • Xiao Liu, X H Zhu and W Chen, 2011, "Baseline BOLD correlation predicts individuals' stimulus-evoked BOLD responses", Neuroimage, 54, (3), pp. 2278--2286
  • Xiao Liu, Xiao-Hong Zhu and Wei Chen, 2011, "Distinction in Coherent Neural Network Between Resting and Working Brain States", Brain Connectivity, 1, (5), pp. 377--388
  • Xiao Liu, Xiao Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang and Wei Chen, 2010, "Neural Origin of Spontaneous Hemodynamic Fluctuations in Rats under Burst-Suppression Anesthesia Condition", Cereb Cortex, 21, (2), pp. 374--384
  • W Chen, Xiao Liu, X H Zhu and Nanyin Zhang, 2009, "Functional MRI study of brain function under resting and activated states", Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2009, pp. 4061--4063
  • Xiao Liu, Zhi yu Tang, Zhu Zeng, Xi Chen, Wei juan Yao, Zong yi Yan, Yan Shi, Hui xian Shan, Da gong Sun, Dong qi He and Zong yao Wen, 2007, "The measurement of shear modulus and membrane surface viscosity of RBC membrane with Ektacytometry: A new technique", Mathematical Biosciences, 209, (1), pp. 190--204
  • Z Zeng, Xiao Liu, Y Jiang, G Wang, J Zhan, J Guo, W Yao, D Sun, W Ka, Y Tang, J Tang, Z Wen and S Chien, 2006, "Biophysical studies on the differentiation of human CD14+ monocytes into dendritic cells", Cell Biochem Biophys, 45, (1), pp. 19--30
  • Dongsheng Luo, Yuchen Bian, Yaowei Yan, Xiong Yu, Jun Huan, Xiao Liu and Xiang Zhang, , "Random Walk on Multiple Networks", Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
  • Dongsheng Luo, Wei Cheng, Dongkuan Xu, Feng *Han, Wenchao Yu, Xiao Liu and Xiang Zhang, , "Towards Inductive and Efficient Explanations for Graph Neural Networks", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
  • Xiao Liu, , "Decoupling Between Brain Activity and Cerebrospinal Fluid Movement in Neurological Disorders", Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, n/a, (n/a)

Conference Proceedings

  • Dongsheng Luo, Yuchen Bian, Yaowei Yan, Xiao Liu, Jun Huan and Xiang Zhang, 2020, "Local Community Detection in Multiple Networks", the 26th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining
  • Dongkuan Xu, Wei Cheng, Dongsheng Luo, Xiao Liu and Xiang Zhang, 2019, "Spatio-Temporal Attentive RNN for Node Classification in Temporal Attributed Graphs", International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization, pp. 3947--3953
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Arousal-related fMRI modulations contribute to the effect of the motion-based scrubbing on local and long-range connectivity"
  • Wanyong Shin, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Physiologic noise correction effects on seed based spontaneous co-activation pattern analysis"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Principal gradient of resting-state functional connectivity represents a principal propagating direction of spontaneous brain activity"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Propagation structures along the principal gradient is related to behavioral measures"
  • Wanyong Shin, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Physiologic noise co-activation pattern in default mode network"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Head motion associated changes in resting-state connectivity may originate from arousal modulations"
  • Wanyong Shin, Crawford Anna, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Comparison of 3T and 7T PCC seed based spontaneous Co-activation analysis"
  • Wanyong Shin, Crawford Anna, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Spontaneous Co-activation analysis at 7T"
  • Feng *Han and Xiao Liu, , "Divergent structural and functional changes across brain hierarchy account for population variation in demographics and behavior"
  • Feng *Han and Xiao Liu, , "Neuroimaging covariation of human behavioral measures is featured by divergent modulations across brain hierarchy"
  • Feng *Han and Xiao Liu, , "Behavior-related resting-state MEG/fMRI connectivity changes are related to the hierarchical organization of the neocortex"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Resting-state fMRI and EEG alpha power show distinct correlations at different time lags"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Electrophysiological and fMRI signals show consistent global propagations across the cortical hierarchy"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Consistent global propagations across cortical hierarchy in the electrophysiological and fMRI signals"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Lag-dependent correlations between resting-state fMRI and EEG show distinct spatial patterns"
  • Feng *Han and Xiao Liu, , "Resting-state fMRI and MEG connectivity show similar pattern of modulations with behavioral changes"
  • Feng *Han, Hashem Zamanian and Xiao Liu, , "Functional connectivity contrast across cortical hierarchy marks daily mood state"
  • Dongkuan Xu, Wei Cheng, Dongsheng Luo, Yameng *Gu, Xiao Liu, jingchao Ni, Bo Zong, Haifeng Chen and Xiang Zhang, , "Adaptive Neural Network for Node Classification in Dynamic Networks", International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization, pp. 3947--3953

Research Projects

Honors and Awards


Service to Penn State:

Service to External Organizations:




The Department of Biomedical Engineering administers the bachelor of science, master of science, and doctorate degree programs in biomedical engineering. Our work combines traditional engineering principles with medicine and technology for the betterment of human health and society. 

Department of Biomedical Engineering

122 Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Building

The Pennsylvania State University

University Park, PA 16802-4400

Phone: 814-863-6614