Photo of Xiao Liu

Xiao Liu

Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Faculty Co-Hire, Institute for Computational and Data Sciences


  • Biomedical Engineering

431 Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Building


Personal or Departmental Website

Research Areas:





  • BE, Mechanics and Engineering Science, Beijing University, 2002
  • M.Eng, Biomedical Engineering, Beijing University, 2005
  • Ph D, Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2010
  • MS, Statistics, University of Minnesota, 2010


Journal Articles

  • Thomas M. Moehlman, Jacco A. de Zwart, Miranda G. Chappel-Farley, Xiao Liu, Irene B. McClain, Catie Chang, Hendrik Mandelkow, Pinar S. Özbay, Nicholas L. Johnson, Rebecca E. Bieber, Katharine A. Fernandez, Kelly A. King, Christopher K. Zalewski, Carmen C. Brewer, Peter van Gelderen, Jeff H. Duyn and Dante Picchioni, 2019, "All-night functional magnetic resonance imaging sleep studies", Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 316, pp. 83 - 98
  • Feng *Han, Yameng *Gu, Gregory L Brown, Xiang Zhang and Xiao Liu, 2019, "Neuroimaging contrast across the cortical hierarchy is the feature maximally linked to behavior and demographics", bioRxiv
  • Feng *Han, Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, 2019, "A Neurophysiological Event of Arousal Modulation May Underlie fMRI-EEG Correlations", Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, pp. 823
  • Xiao Liu, Nanyin Zhang, Catie Chang and Jeff H. Duyn, 2018, "Co-activation patterns in resting-state fMRI signals", NeuroImage, 180, pp. 485 - 494
  • Xiao Liu, Jacco A. De Zwart, Scholvinck, Marieke L., Catie Chang, Frank Q. Ye, David A. Leopold and Jeff H. Duyn, 2018, "Subcortical evidence for a contribution of arousal to fMRI studies of brain activity", Nature Communications
  • Yameng *Gu, Feng *Han, Lucas E. *Sainburg and Xiao Liu, 2018, "Transient arousal modulations are responsible for resting-state functional connectivity changes associated with head motion", bioRxiv
  • C Chang, D A Leopold, M L Scholvinck, H Mandelkow, D Picchioni, Xiao ^Liu, F Q Ye, J N Turchi and J H Duyn, 2016, "Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113, (16), pp. 4518–4523
  • Xiao ^Liu, T Yanagawa, D A Leopold, C Chang, H Ishida, N Fujii and J H Duyn, 2015, "Arousal transitions in sleep, wakefulness, and anesthesia are characterized by an orderly sequence of cortical events", NeuroImage, 116, pp. 222--231
  • Xiao ^Liu, T Yanagawa, D A Leopold, N Fujii and J H Duyn, 2014, "Robust Long-Range Coordination of Spontaneous Neural Activity in Waking, Sleep and Anesthesia", Cerebral cortex
  • Xiao ^Liu, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang and Wei Chen, 2013, "The Change of Functional Connectivity Specificity in Rats Under Various Anesthesia Levels and its Neural Origin", Brain Topography, 26, (3), pp. 363--377
  • Xiao ^Liu, C Chang and J H Duyn, 2013, "Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns", Front Syst Neurosci, 7, pp. 101
  • Catie Chang, Zhongming Liu, Michael C. Chen, Xiao ^Liu and Jeff H. Duyn, 2013, "EEG correlates of time-varying BOLD functional connectivity", NeuroImage, 72, pp. 227--236
  • Xiao ^Liu and J H Duyn, 2013, "Time-Varying Functional Network Information Extracted from Brief Instances of Spontaneous Brain Activity", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, (11), pp. 4392--4397
  • Xiao ^Liu, X H Zhu, P Qiu and W Chen, 2012, "A correlation-matrix-based hierarchical clustering method for functional connectivity analysis", Journal of neuroscience methods, 211, (1), pp. 94--102
  • Xiao ^Liu, X H Zhu and W Chen, 2011, "Baseline BOLD correlation predicts individuals' stimulus-evoked BOLD responses", Neuroimage, 54, (3), pp. 2278--2286
  • Xiao ^Liu, Xiao-Hong Zhu and Wei Chen, 2011, "Distinction in Coherent Neural Network Between Resting and Working Brain States", Brain Connectivity, 1, (5), pp. 377--388
  • Xiao ^Liu, Xiao Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang and Wei Chen, 2010, "Neural Origin of Spontaneous Hemodynamic Fluctuations in Rats under Burst-Suppression Anesthesia Condition", Cereb Cortex, 21, (2), pp. 374--384
  • W Chen, Xiao ^Liu, X H Zhu and Nanyin Zhang, 2009, "Functional MRI study of brain function under resting and activated states", Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2009, pp. 4061--4063
  • Xiao ^Liu, Zhi yu Tang, Zhu Zeng, Xi Chen, Wei juan Yao, Zong yi Yan, Yan Shi, Hui xian Shan, Da gong Sun, Dong qi He and Zong yao Wen, 2007, "The measurement of shear modulus and membrane surface viscosity of RBC membrane with Ektacytometry: A new technique", Mathematical Biosciences, 209, (1), pp. 190--204
  • Z Zeng, Xiao ^Liu, Y Jiang, G Wang, J Zhan, J Guo, W Yao, D Sun, W Ka, Y Tang, J Tang, Z Wen and S Chien, 2006, "Biophysical studies on the differentiation of human CD14+ monocytes into dendritic cells", Cell Biochem Biophys, 45, (1), pp. 19--30

Conference Proceedings

  • Dongkuan Xu, Wei Cheng, Dongsheng Luo, Xiao Liu and Xiang Zhang, 2019, "Spatio-Temporal Attentive RNN for Node Classification in Temporal Attributed Graphs", International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization, pp. 3947--3953
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Arousal-related fMRI modulations contribute to the effect of the motion-based scrubbing on local and long-range connectivity"
  • Wanyong Shin, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Physiologic noise correction effects on seed based spontaneous co-activation pattern analysis"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Principal gradient of resting-state functional connectivity represents a principal propagating direction of spontaneous brain activity"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Propagation structures along the principal gradient is related to behavioral measures"
  • Wanyong Shin, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Physiologic noise co-activation pattern in default mode network"
  • Dongkuan Xu, Wei Cheng, Dongsheng Luo, Yameng *Gu, Xiao Liu, jingchao Ni, Bo Zong, Haifeng Chen and Xiang Zhang, , "Adaptive Neural Network for Node Classification in Dynamic Networks", International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization, pp. 3947--3953
  • Wanyong Shin, Crawford Anna, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Comparison of 3T and 7T PCC seed based spontaneous Co-activation analysis"
  • Wanyong Shin, Crawford Anna, Xiao Liu and Mark J Lowe, , "Spontaneous Co-activation analysis at 7T"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Head motion associated changes in resting-state connectivity may originate from arousal modulations"
  • Feng *Han and Xiao Liu, , "Behavior-related resting-state MEG/fMRI connectivity changes are related to the hierarchical organization of the neocortex"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Resting-state fMRI and EEG alpha power show distinct correlations at different time lags"
  • Yameng *Gu and Xiao Liu, , "Electrophysiological and fMRI signals show consistent global propagations across the cortical hierarchy"
  • Feng *Han and Xiao Liu, , "Divergent structural and functional changes across brain hierarchy account for population variation in demographics and behavior"
  • Feng *Han and Xiao Liu, , "Neuroimaging covariation of human behavioral measures is featured by divergent modulations across brain hierarchy"

Research Projects

Honors and Awards


Service to Penn State:

Service to External Organizations:




The Department of Biomedical Engineering administers the undergraduate major in biomedical engineering, and is a part of the university-wide Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, offering both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Bioengineering. Our work combines traditional engineering principles with medicine and technology for the betterment of human health and society. 

Department of Biomedical Engineering

122 Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Building

The Pennsylvania State University

University Park, PA 16802-4400

Phone: 814-863-6614