Arnold A. FontaineArnold Fontaine

Applied Research Lab
165 ARL Building
University Park, PA 16802

Tel: 814-863-1765

Research Interests

Dr. Fontaine's research interests are concentrated in the areas of cardiovascular bioengineering, experimental and theoretical fluid dynamics, flow control, and turbulence. His bioengineering research has focused on the mechanics and fluid dynamics of the heart and major vessels of the cardiovascular system including cardiovascular bio-prostheses, and the mechanics of normal and diseased heart valves. Additional research interests include turbulent flow effects and non-Newtonian flow effects in biological systems, and the development non-invasive hemodynamic diagnostic techniques including Doppler ultrasound, ultrasonic imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging and flow measurement.

In-vitro and in vivo research on the mechanics of functional mitral regurgitation have led to an increased understanding of the underlying physics responsible for development of regurgitation in patients with ischemic heart disease. These results have refined clinical methodologies for disease management in these patients. Research on the hemodynamics of mechanical heart valve prostheses has revealed the importance of local paravalvular and perivalvular flow fields in the potential for thrombus formation in mechanical valve designs. These research topics employ experimental and computational techniques in fluid dynamics and stress analysis. Studies are conducted in in vitro laboratories using state of the art equipment as well as clinical measurement techniques. Heart valve research has been conducted using man-made and natural (animal) valves. When applicable, in vivo or animal studies are conducted through clinical collaborations.

Dr. Fontaine actively collaborates with colleagues in the cardiovascular fluid dynamics laboratory and artificial heart laboratory in the Bioengineering department at Penn State University. In addition, Dr. Fontaine maintains active collaborations with Cardiologists at Massachusetts General Hospital, and researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology. He has consulted with several biomedical companies in the areas of cardiovascular bio-prosthetic development, and in regulatory testing of prosthetic devices.

Representative Publications

1. Nielsen, S.L., Nygaard, H, Fontaine, A.A., Hasenkam, J.M., He, S., Andersen, N.T. and Yoganathan, A.P., "Chordal Force Distribution determines systolic mitral leaflet configuration and severity of functional Mitral Regurgitation," Accepted for journal publication, JACC, March 1999.
2. Fontaine, A.A., Deutsch, S., Brungart, T.A., Petrie, H.L. and Fenstermacker, M., "Drag Reduction by Coupled Systems: Microbubble Injection with Homogeneous Polymer and Surfactant Solutions," Accepted for journal publication, Exp. Fluids, November 1998.
3. Healy, T.M., Fontaine, A.A., Ellis, J.T., Walton, S.P. and Yoganathan, A.P., "Visualization of the Hinge Flow in a 5:1 Scaled Model of the Medtronic Parallel Valve," Exp. in Fluids, Accepted for publication, 1998.
4. Hashim, S., Fontaine, A.A., He, S., Levine, R.A. and Yoganathan, A.P., "A Three-Component Force Vector Cell for In Vitro Quantification of the Force Exerted by the Papillary Muscle on the Left Ventricular Wall," J. Biomech. Vol. 30, No. 10, pp. 1071-1075, 1997.
5. He, S., Fontaine, A.A., Schwammenthal, E., Yoganathan, A.P. and Levine, R.A., "Integrated Mechanism for Functional Mitral Regurgitation- Leaflet Restriction vs. Coapting Force: In Vitro Studies," Circ., Vol. 96, pp. 1826-1834, 1997.